- Substantive or Structural Editing - Optimizing the content and structure of a manuscript with input from the author.
- Stylistic Editing - Clarifying meaning, removing jargon, improving language flow. May include creating or recasting tables and/or charts with input from the author.
- Writing - Creating document as per client request. May include interviewing client and related experts. May include research and/or analysis.
- Rewriting – Creating parts of a manuscript on the basis of content and research supplied by the author. May include research, excerpts of client-approved sources, and writing of original material.
- Copy Editing - Editing for grammar, spelling, punctuation and other mechanics of style; checking for consistency of mechanics and internal consistency of facts; marking head levels and approximate placement of art; and notifying designer of any unusual production requirements. May include changing text for Canadian markets; conversion to or from SI units; providing or changing citations; writing or editing captions and/or credit lines; writing running heads; identifying call-outs.
- Picture Research - Locating suitable photos and/or artwork. May include obtaining camera-ready reproductions; preparing descriptions, labels, captions and sources.
- Referencing - Footnotes, end notes, bibliographic entries. Chicago style, APA style, or customized by journal. Books, articles, private communication, online content.
- Indexing – Primary and secondary levels.
Professional writing, editing, and online proofreading services.